However, unlike in English, in Arabic… The table below illustrates the English consonants. Modern Standard Arabic has 38. Consonants (28).Punjabi has 28 consonants in total, including 15 stops and affricates, 2 fricatives, 5 nasals, 4 liquids and 2 glides. Registered office: Venture House, Cross Street, Arnold, Nottingham, Nottinghamshire, NG5 7PJ. The English language is a West Germanic language which belongs to Indo-European language family and has its roots in 450 AD. Disclaimer: This work has been submitted by a university student. Waengler (2009) states that Vowels are speech sounds produced with a relatively open vocal tract. that the Arabic phonological transfer to English pronunciation may facilitate Indonesian EFL students to learn English pronunciation. Since Arabic is the holy language of Islam, non-Arab Muslims learn the language, too. We've received widespread press coverage since 2003, Your UKEssays purchase is secure and we're rated 4.4/5 on reviews.co.uk. On the phonemic level, the consonant system of fricatives is presented as following: Therefore, phonological differences lay in the absence of the phoneme /v/ in Arabic; phonemes /s/ and /z/ are alveolar in English and dental in Arabic, provoking various pronunciation patterns. The second, on the contrary, is very rough like in the word “Bach,” and the third one comes deeply from throat like in the blowing process. These comprise the examples of /tʃ/ and /dʒ/ in English and /ʒ/ج in Arabic. } It also represents the consonant w. When Waw is used to represent the long vowel, damma appears above the preceding consonant. I will definitely recommend you to my fellow students. Quick question – Do you write resumes, motivation letters and cover letters? Now you can also ask, how then come, that within a language there are still more consonants than vowels? Moreover, grammatical rules were covered by two major schools of Kufa and Basra still in the 8th century; however, almost every grammar rule has at least one exception ( Sbait, n.d). Our outstanding writers are mostly educated to MA and PhD level. Alif is the long vowel ā (a long “ahh” sound as in English “father”). The main difference is that there are just six short and long vowels in Arabic, whereas there are twelve vowels in (British) English. 3. The stops may be produced by different organs like lips, tongue or teeth; but in general, they include such sounds as /p/ and /b/, /t/ and /d/, /k/and /g/ in English, /b/ب, /t/ ت, /ṭ/ ط, /d/ د, /ḍ/ض, /q/ق, /k/ك in Arabic. Historically English originated from several dialects, now called old English which were brought to Great Britain by Anglo-Saxon settlers in the 5th century. 5) The articulation of the long vowel / i:/ in Arabic is similar to the high front vowel /i:/ in English. On the contrary, differences are found as problematic. و/w/ in Arabic, labiodental – are created by upper teeth and lower lip: /f/ and /v/ in English, /f/ف in Arabic, dental – are created by putting the tongue behind the upper teeth: / ð / and/ θ / in English and /t/ ت, /ṭ/ ط, /d/ د, /ḍ /ض, /s /س, /ṣ/ص, /z/ز in Arabic, alveolar – as the name says for itself, sounds are created with the help of alveolar ridge: /t/, /d/, /s/, /z/, /n/, /l/, /r/ in English and /r/ر, /L/ ل, and /n/ ن in Arabic, alveopalatal – tongue goes to the roof to the mouth to hard palate leaving behind alveolar ridge (/ʃ/ ,/ tʃ/, /ʒ/, and /dʒ/), velar – are created with the help of soft palate and back of tongue: /k/, /g/, and /ŋ/ in English and /x/خ, /˛g/غ, and /k/ك in Arabic, palatal – are made by soft palate and front part of tongue: /j/ in English and /ʃ/ش , /j/ي, and /ʒ/ج in Arabic, glottal – are created only by air without any obstructions: /h/ in English and /h/ and /?/ ء in Arabic. J. It also touches upon pedagogical implications for teaching English and Arabic phonology. The grammar of a language includes its phonetic attributes, and there are many phonetic differences between the English and Arabic languages… Considering its family, English is a branch of the Indo-European language family that includes German, Dutch, and Scandinavian. That is why “differences are referred to as problematic areas or difficulties in contrastive analysis” (Brown 2000). And the four below consonants are absent in modern standard Arabic but present in Khuzestani Arabic. There are almost no Arabic roots with identical consonants in the first and third position. I do not know the name of the person that wrote my paper but whoever you are….THANK YOU! If you are referring only to the letters of the Alphabet, then depending on dialect and definition, there are about 16. Differentiation in families influences the structure, spelling, grammar, phonology, and morphology of both languages. Table 1. Activate JavaScript to see the phone number., function gen_phone_to_link(lhs,rhs) { “There have been two major approaches to study learners’ errors, namely Contrastive Analysis and Error Analysis” (Keshavarz, 2007). The comparison is based on the phonemic level where the structure of consonant phonemes and their relations are described, and the subphonemic level. Historically, it starts in the 5thcentury from Classical Arabic and comes into such varieties as Modern Literary Arabic, Modern Spoken Arabic, and Modern Standard Arabic. } Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 46, 517Œ529. Thank you to everyone at Thesisleader.com. Palatals in Arabic are softer than in English. Note: the double ‘r’ in this example shows the intensification of that sound in Arabic. They may cause either under differentiation or over differentiation in the area of phonology which is one level of CA. Do you have a 2:1 degree or higher? of each Arabic consonant help with ... 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